Knowing the soil type found on your building plot with undoubtedly inform your choice of foundation system, but while many areas of a building project can be planned and prepared for in advance, your planned approach for your foundations may need to change once you break ground.

This uncertainty means that a contingency fund is vital to ensure that you can deal with any unforeseen issues without the whole project grinding to a halt.

Here we explain the soil types you may encounter on your site and the foundation systems you can choose from.

Soil Types

Rock

Includes:

  • limestone
  • granite
  • sandstone
  • shale
  • hard solid chalk

These rocks have a high bearing capacity. The rock may simply need to be stripped back and levelled off to build from.

Rock can be impervious, so topsoil is likely to require drainage as it is not possible to build soakaways to dispose of rainwater or surface water. Off-mains drainage options will also be very limited.

Chalk

Providing the chalk is not too soft, widths of 450mm for low-rise buildings are generally acceptable. The depth of the foundation must be below any frost action (700mm). If the chalk is soft it will need to be excavated until firm chalk is reached.

Chalk soils can be prone to erosion so be wary of hollows or caves.

Gravel and sand

Dry compact gravel, or gravel and sand subsoils are usually adequate for strip foundations. Generally a depth of 700mm is acceptable, as long as the ground has adequate bearing capacity.

If the water table is high (i.e. the gravel is submerged), the bearing capacity is halved, so it’s important to keep the foundations as high as possible. A shallow, reinforced, wide strip foundation may be suitable.

Sand holds together reasonably well when damp, compacted and uniform, but trenches may collapse and so sheet piling is often used to retain the ground in trenches until the concrete is poured.

Clay

The first 900-1,200mm layer of clay is subject to movement due to expansion and shrinkage depending on moisture content, so it is generally necessary to excavate foundations to a depth where the moisture content of the clay remains stable. British Standard 8004 recommends a minimum depth of 1m for foundations But if there are, or were, trees nearby, depths of up to 3m may be necessary.

In clay, prior to concreting the foundations, the trench is often protected from heave by lining it with a compressible layer (e.g. Clayboard).

Firm clay over soft clay

A traditional strip foundation is sometimes acceptable but it is important not to overdig as this may increase the stress on the softer clay beneath. A common solution is to dig wide strip foundations with steel reinforcement — however an engineered foundation may be necessary.

Peat

Peat and loose waterlogged sand are very poor subsoils. If the peat can be stripped back to find suitable load-bearing ground of at least 1.5m depth, strip foundations may be suitable. A reinforced raft foundation will likely be required.

Filled ground

Where ground has previously been excavated and filled, it is generally necessary to dig down to a level beneath the area of the fill.

Sloping sites

Sloping sites require stepped foundations. Guidelines are given in the Building Regulations.

Identifying Soil Types

If you don’t already know the soil type of your plot, a good starting point is to call your local authority Building Control department. They can give you an idea of the typical soil type in the area you are building, and the sort of foundation that is appropriate.

Most local authorities produce a fact sheet on typical foundation solutions for different soil types commonly found in the area.

Another useful source of information is the Building Regulations Approved Document A: 2004 which lists seven types of soil plus subsoil conditions and practical field tests to help you identify soil type.

Soil Surveys

Soil investigations can prove very useful but are not a prerequisite. Most sites start without a formal soil investigation, relying instead on either the knowledge of the designer, or the local expertise of the building inspector.

The process involves holes being dug at various points on the site and extrapolating the findings in each hole to assume the subsoil conditions throughout the site.


Foundation Systems

What are Strip Foundations?

The standard routine is to place as little solid concrete as possible into trenches and then to build up from this in blockwork until ground level, where the walls switch to brick or stone or whatever the chosen external cladding should be. This is known as a strip foundation.

For a single storey building strip foundations will typically be 450mm wide and at least 200mm deep, and for two storeys 600mm wide and 200mm deep.

Deep Strip Foundations: Where strip foundations need to be at a lower level to reach soil with suitable bearing capacity, a wider, deeper trench can be dug to work in, and the strip foundations dug and poured at a lower level. Walls are then built up to ground level in masonry.

Wide Strip Foundations: Where the soil is soft or of a low load-bearing capacity, wide strip foundations can be used to spread the load over a larger area, reinforced with steel so that the loading per m² is reduced.

strip and trench foundations

Diagrams of strip foundations (left) and trenchfill foundations

What are Trenchfill Foundations?

A widely used alternative is the trenchfill foundation, where the trenches are filled with ready-mixed concrete to just below ground level. Steel reinforcement may be added in areas close to trees. While this method saves on labour, it will add to the overall cost of your foundations. Just above ground level, the footings are topped with a damp-proof course and then the ground floor is fixed.

Compared to deep strip foundations, trench fill minimises the width of the dig and the labour and materials required for building masonry below ground level, offsetting the cost of the additional concrete.

(MORE: How much will my foundations cost?)

Deep Foundations

If you have a difficult plot where the ground is deemed to be difficult, then standard strip or trenchfill foundations are unlikely to suit. There are alternative options, but they are considerably more expensive.

Digging deeper trenches and filling with more concrete, and potentially adding sheets of polystyrene beside the trenches to act as a slip membrane can be a simple solution.

But if you are having to dig beyond 2.5m in depth, then this solution becomes impractical. Not only will the amount of concrete needed to fill the trench become prohibitively expensive, but working at that depth can prove dangerous.

If the site requires deep foundations in more than a couple of spots, then it is now usual to use a different approach, most often piling, occasionally using concrete rafts.

(MORE: Foundations for difficult sites)

What are Raft Foundations?

Raft Foundations

A raft is an alternative to piled foundations as it can be less expensive

As the name suggests, a concrete raft is designed to ‘float’ on the ground beneath. The structure is made up of an extra-thick floor slab, strengthened by masses on steel reinforcing. Rafts have the advantage of providing the base of a ground floor solution, not just wall trenching, but they are reckoned to be rather more complex to construct.

A raft is used where the soil requires such a large bearing area that wide strip foundations are spread too far, making it more economical to pour one large reinforced concrete slab.

What are Piled Foundations?

Piled foundations

Short bore piles are typically 2–3m long and can be reinforced with steel

Some housebuilders now use piled foundations on every site because the costs are predictable. Piles are driven into the ground and then filled with concrete, and the whole foundation gets topped with a ground beam to build off.

Short bore pile and beam: Short bore piles are typically 2–3m long and can be reinforced with steel. Each pile is then connected at the top by a precast horizontal beam of reinforced concrete. A suspended reinforced concrete ground floor can then be built using precast components, or cast in situ.

Friction Piles: A similar concept to short bore pile and beam used in situations where there is no suitable bearing stratum at an acceptable depth. Friction piles rely on skin resistance against the soil.

What are Pad Foundations?

Pad foundations

Used when isolated loads need to be supported, for instance to support the columns of a steel or post and beam frame house. The load is concentrated on a small area.

(MORE: How much does it cost to build a house?)

For a how-to guide on getting started with your foundations, check out our Beginner’s Guide.

Articles like this Comments
Comments
  • Anonymous

    I am a Structural Engineer, and I am shocked by how ill-informed your article on foundations is… It beg’s belief that you are supposidely providing an element of ‘professional’ advice to self builder’s, when you clearly have no clue yourself…. Incredible..

  • Jason Orme

    Hi – interested to hear your views on this – if you would like to let us know your issues with this article please do drop me a line at homebuilding@centaur.co.uk.

    The articles are prepared by experts in their field and I would be keen to hear if there is any way we can improve on any of them.

    Best wishes

  • Karl Pitman

    hello. I am doing a course in construction and civil enginering. wondering if u could help me. my question is i have to describe the building methods used in building a raft foundation using correct terminology. How all the materials are put together in what sequence. Any help on this would be much appreciated. thanks

  • mike from kent

    whats your name and company my friend? besst tell everyone so we can all talk to such an expert

  • Anonymous

    Why would anyone build a foundation with 4" solid blocks? Sort of defeats the purpose.

  • Banklands

    I note the information relating to Types of Foundations does not include foundations to terraced properties which are constructed on rock and concrete (ratio of 50/50) foundations to front elevations. I note that our property is constructed on solid rock with concrete foundations with debris in part of the concrete section with a bed of Clinker? beneath.Is this or was this common practice during the construction period circa 1955. I was wondering if you know as I do have problems with cracking as do the other four out of five properties on the terrace exhibiting the same cracking to the non cavity party walls?

    If you need more info please ask.

    Thanks

  • 319george

    My detached house was built on a concrete raft in 1978. We have lived here for 7 years and during this time, subtle movement seems to take place though wet/dry periods, for example, small cracks internally and externally, internal doors catching on door frames. Is it normal for a raft to allow small amounts of movement, or is it something and need to investigate further? I’d be interested to hear your views…

  • PXF

    A plot I am intersted in is impacted partly by tree root protection areas. This is only going to be along one side of a 200 sq.m. footprint. The arboriculturist has indicated piling will be required to protect the tree roots. The question is; can I use normal trench foundations for three sides and internals, where there are no protected areas and piling where necessary. Is it possible or indeed good practice to mate the two methods?

  • Samuel Joy

    Hiya,

    I’ve reposted your question in the discussion forum as you may be more likely to receive a response there. The link is http://www.homebuilding.co.uk/forum/building-structure/mixing-types-foundations

    Kind regards,
    Sam Joy (Online Editor)

  • Andy Webster

    I also work as a structural engineer and I agree with the previous comment, the info given is either quite vague, misleading or incorrect.

  • Lindsey Davis

    Hello Andy,

    Thanks for your comment. If you have any comments on how we could improve the information given, please email us at homebuilding@centaur.co.uk

    We are always keen to improve upon an article which may be deemed misleading.

    Best,
    Lindsey

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