House renovation is one of the best ways to get the house you want and remains a viable and popular way to work your way up the property ladder. Of course this type of project is not only a good way to increase your bank balance — sometimes a house renovation is the only way to afford a house of the size and style you want in a certain area.
House renovation projects are also ideal for those after a property with plenty of character and original features.
No two house renovation projects are going to be the same, but there are certain tasks that all renovators will find themselves facing and having a good idea of what to expect and when will ensure your project runs smoothly.
- Current condition assessment
- Stop further decay
- Grants/Tax concessions
- Statutory consents
- Structural stability
- Demolition work
- Dealing with damp
- Site access
- Major building work
- External works
- First fix
- Drying out
- Fixed flooring
- Second fix
- Final clean
1. What is the Condition of Your House?
Even before you have purchased a renovation project, it is quite possible to get a good idea of the condition of a house.
Your first port of call should be a chartered surveyor. They will be able to carry out a building report which should highlight any areas of concern and give you an idea of any essential repairs that will be needed and what you might be required to spend on the project.
A chartered surveyor will recommend further investigations if they suspect or detect:
- subsidence or heave
- drainage problems
A building report is designed to ascertain the construction methods that have been used in the house (sometimes these vary if the house has been extended over the years.) This information can then be used in the house renovation to check that any new materials and techniques used are appropriate — this knowledge allows you to plan more effectively.
Another pre-house renovation essential is to get a measured survey. This will give you a precise scale drawing of the layout of the existing building. If you plan on making a planning application as part of your house renovation, this is likely to be required.
You can find a surveyor via the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors.
2. Getting a Project Watertight
Occasionally a renovation project will have been unoccupied for many years. In this case, signs of deterioration will be obvious — broken windows, a defective roof, rot and damp being amongst the most common problems.
But occupied renovation projects can suffer from the same problems — deceased estates and those that have been generally unloved over the years will both often show signs of neglect and your priority needs to be to stop this deterioration before it gets any worse — boarding up windows and doors and covering leaking roofs quickly.
Now is the time to take out suitable buildings and public liability insurance cover to protect against accidental damage through fire, storm or flood etc, or legal action from a trespasser who suffers injury.
House Renovation and Insurance
It’s crucial that you get the right kind of insurance before you start any renovation work.
To help renovators secure peace of mind, Homebuilding & Renovating has partnered with Self Build Zone to provide bespoke insurance solutions at market-leading rates.
3. Grants and Tax Concessions
When getting your finances in order, it pays (literally) to check whether you are eligible for any grants that might apply to the house renovation work you are carrying out. You will need to apply for grants before starting work. Check with your local council and also at national level from Central Government via National Heritage.
When it comes to VAT concessions, reduced rates may be offered on residential buildings that have been empty for two or more years. You can find more on this in VAT Notice 708.
4. Which Consents Apply to a House Renovation?
There are several consent checks to consider before starting work on your house renovation, including:
- planning permission
- building regulations approval
- listed building consent
To avoid delays begin your schedule of works with those projects that do not require planning consent.
Remember, even those jobs that require building regulations approval can be started following 24 hours’ notice of the intention to comply, made to the local authority building control department.
If you are building near the boundary of your house renovation you should check whether or not this work is affected by the Party Wall Act. It is also wise to get your solicitor to check your title deeds or lease — there may be restrictions relating to development of the property.
(MORE: Building Regulations)
5. Structural Stability Issues
You should aim to identify any structural problems with the property as early on in the project as possible — not only are they dangerous, particularly if you are living on site, but they could cause further damage to the sound and table areas of the house too.
Subsidence, underpinning, or piling work to the existing foundations can be a particular concern. If lateral spread has occurred in the walls and roof, steel ties might be needed. In extremely unstable house renovations, the insertion of steel props, beams or scaffold will prevent further collapse.
Does the House Have Water and Power?
It may be necessary to connect or re-connect a water supply. If there was one it may have been disconnected. Electricity will also be required for power tools or day-to-day living if you plan on staying on site. There is the possibility of using a temporary meter box depending upon the condition of any existing wiring.
Once the structure is stable, demolition work can begin and any areas of your house renovation which need to be stripped away can be removed. Waste can be removed in skips. Private individuals can get rid of most waste for free at local authority tips, although asbestos will need to be dealt with separately.
A house renovation often involves certain elements which can be salvaged and reused. These items should be taken away and stored somewhere safe, or sold on to a salvage yard.
Sometimes it is possible to sell the salvage rights of large-scale demolition projects in which case some of the removal work may be undertaken by the reclamation yard — saving time and effort and potentially raising some cash, too.
(MORE: How to get rid of rubble)
7. Discovering Damp During a House Renovation
Renovators should be prepared to find signs of a damp problem — active, historical or both.
Any property more than 80 years old is likely to have solid walls (as opposed to modern cavity walls) and such buildings often suffer from damp problems. Very often the damp will have been caused by inappropriate modern alterations such as:
- replacing lime with cement in pointing or render
- painting using modern impermeable products
- replacing suspended timber floors with concrete
- reducing or covering up ventilation
- changing external ground levels against the building
There are several types of damp, although the most common two are rising damp and penetrating damp. It is wise to get an expert opinion on what type of damp you are dealing with in your house renovation — each will need to be treated differently.
Rising damp solutions include:
- improving ground drainage around the property
- lowering the external ground level
- improving ventilation
- even just getting the heating back on
Penetrating damp problems in walls and ceilings can usually be resolved by repairing the building’s fabric, such as:
- repointing brickwork with lime mortar
- repairing lime render or missing hung tiles
- fixing the roof
- repairing lead flashings and valleys, guttering and doors and windows
Avoid invasive solutions that will damage the building’s fabric and replace like with like wherever possible and practical.
This is also the right time in a house renovation project to treat any signs of infestation such as rot and woodworm.
Many conservationists frown upon spraying chemicals in buildings to treat rot and woodworm, as these problems should resolve themselves in a few months once damp problems are fixed and the building is heated. However, not everyone is willing to wait or take any risks, and lenders often insist on chemical treatments as a condition of their loan.
8. Does the Property Have Drain Connections?
Now is the time to check that the existing drains are in working order. Locate the inspection chambers (manholes) and pour different colour food dye down the loos and sinks to find out what is connected to where and whether any drains have collapsed and need digging up.
If carrying out a house extension, you may have to relocate drains anyway and now is the time to find out. If there is no mains drainage connection, inspect the condition of any existing septic tank and soakaways.
9. Consider How to Arrange Access
If your house renovation is located on a site with restricted access it is a good idea to plan ahead and get any large items or machinery in for landscaping on to the plot, before access is further obstructed by new building work and stored materials.
10. Work Can Begin on Your House Renovation
The building work can now begin in earnest — work such as constructing an extension, for example. All new work must comply with the Building Regulations. As of January 2006, new building regulations applications for extensions have to include proposals to upgrade the thermal performance of the existing part of the house.
If living in the house renovation, seal off the occupied spaces at the same time as protecting any parts of the existing building that could be damaged during the main construction stage of the project, especially in listed buildings.
11. Make Your Renovation Project Weathertight
Once the roof structure has been built, felted and battened, the entire structure should be made weathertight to keep out the elements and to secure the building.
Whilst the scaffold, is up check that any chimney stacks and pots are stable and clear, put on bird guards, and to repair lead flashings around the chimneys, in valleys, on hips, dormers and any abutments.
If any new parts of the roof intersect with the old, it is always preferable to match the existing/original roof covering either by buying reclaimed tiles/slates or by replacing one plane of the roof at the back and using the salvaged tiles/slates at the front.
12. Repairing External House Details
Whilst the scaffold is still up, replace, repair and fix all guttering, and fix brackets for the downpipes.
13. Connecting Drains
Once the scaffold is down, it is time to connect up the external drains to the sewer or septic tank. Some prefer to undertake this work at the groundworks stage, but this leaves the drains vulnerable to damage during building work — especially if they are exposed in the trenches around the building before backfilling.
Landscaping work to form the drive, paths, beds and lawns can be undertaken at almost any point in the project, providing it can be protected from damage by the building work. Most people wait until they are ready to move in.
Do not lay the final drive finish until all heavy vehicles and skips have finally left site.
14. First Fix Internal Work
Once the house has a roof on, internal works can begin.
Internal stud wall frames can be built, flooring grade chipboard or floorboards can be fixed to joists, and ceiling joists can be added where required.
Door linings can now be fitted ready for the plasterers to work to (these are added later for dry-lining), and window reveals and cills can also be inserted.
Once the first fix carpentry (including new staircases) is complete, new first fix wiring and plumbing work can be undertaken, including soil pipes and drainage connections.
At this stage everything that will later be concealed by plaster needs to be installed, such as:
- ventilation ducts
- hot water cylinder
- extract ducts
- wiring for central heating controls
- speakers or any other home automation equipment.
Will the House Need Rewiring?
Unless your renovation project has seen any recent modernisation work, there is a good chance a complete rewire will be required — an electrician will be able to tell you straight away, but tell-tale signs include Bakelite switches and old fabric covered flex.
Building Regulations now require all wiring to meet the current regulations and electricians will insist on this in order to be able to certify their work.
15. Plastering Walls and Screeding Floors
With first fix complete it is time to plaster, apply plasterboard/dry-lining to ceilings and any stud walls (tacking), and to repair any damaged plasterwork/mouldings.
In an older building, avoid using modern metal angle beads around arises, unless you want crisp clean lines: instead use timber beads.
Make sure you protect the stairs and any other vulnerable features while the plasterers are in, as it is a messy job.
New floor screeds for the ground floor will be laid at this point, usually after plastering to help keep it clean, but some like to screed and then plaster in order to create a neater joint between plaster and floor.
If you are laying underfloor heating, the pipes or cable elements will usually be laid after plastering, so that the manifolds can be fixed in place, but before screeding so that the pipes and elements are covered.
16. Drying Out Internal Finishes
Before bringing in any timber products (such as flooring etc.), the plaster and any new screed needs to be allowed to thoroughly dry out.
Depending on the time of year this will take from two to six weeks — the longer it can be left, the less the danger of moisture causing problems with second fix joinery and especially wooden floors.
17. Laying Flooring
Whilst some people choose to lay fixed flooring such as flagstones, ceramic tiles and solid wooden floors after fitting the kitchen, sanitary ware and built-in furniture, there are several reasons why this is not a good idea.
Laying these floors from edge to edge of each room beforehand avoids many problems later in terms of uneven edges and also leaves flexibility to change these items in further down the line.
18. Second Fix Work: What Does it Involve?
You have reached the point in your house renovation to:
- Connect the consumer unit and fit all light fittings, sockets, switches, phone and TV points and the extractor hood
- Hang all doors and fix skirting, architrave, spindles and handrails
- Install the bathroom fittings and connect the taps
- Install the boiler and controls, and fit radiators
- Fit the kitchen and complete any fitted furniture
- Box in any pipes or soil stacks ready for the decorators
- It is also time for the plumber and electrician to commission the heating system
Painting and staining should only begin once all second fix work and preparation is complete to ensure the building is clean and dust free — otherwise it will be impossible to get a good finish.
Kitchen and bathroom wall tiling can now be carried out.
Shower enclosures and doors can be fitted once tiling is complete. Finally, once decorating is complete, any soft floor coverings, such as vinyl and carpet can be laid and the white goods such as the oven, hob, fridge and washing machine can be fitted.
20. Moving Into Your Renovated House
The building is ready to move into, but before doing so it is a good idea to have a final clean throughout.
21. A Snagging List
Small problems will inevitably crop up over the ensuing months.
Fix these problems as they arise, or, if you used tradesmen, ask them back, although expect to have to pay them for defects that are not their fault, such as plaster cracks.
If you used a main contractor, you may have held back a retention of 2.5-5% on the final payment. This sum is released once they have returned and resolved any defects.