Renovating a house is an exciting, potentially profitable, project. From discovering original features hidden under years worth of dust or the chance to put your own stamp on something — or perhaps the best route to getting a bigger house in a better area than you would otherwise be able to afford.
The success of renovating a house relies on being prepared for what lies ahead and, to a certain degree, an expectation that there will be some surprises in store.
Renovating a house can bring about a set of issues that will need to be resolved before your dream home can emerge — and these issues tend to involve hidden costs. Being aware of these and having a step-by-step plan of action should mean the project remains on schedule and budget.
What is a Schedule of Works?
A schedule of works is essential to anyone renovating a house. It basically outlines every single job that needs to be done from start to finish of a project, in the right order. Ideally you also want to include who is doing what and how much it will cost on the list.
Below is a typical schedule of works for a house renovation, although yours might look a little different. Your house designer or builder will be able to advise you.
- Current condition assessment
- Stop further decay
- Grants/Tax concessions
- Statutory consents
- Structural stability
- Demolition work
- Dealing with damp
- Site access
- Major building work
- External works
- First fix
- Drying out
- Fixed flooring
- Second fix
- Final clean
- Move in
This Grade II listed Victorian house renovation has resulted in a stunning home, but researching the ceiling price of other houses on the street will avoid overspending. Image: Jeremy Phillips.
Whilst a renovation project might look like the ideal opportunity at first glance, further investigation may prove otherwise. Knowing when to walk away from a project is crucial if you are to avoid buying a money pit.
Whilst a quick look at renovation opportunities for sale will undoubtedly bring up many ‘houses in need of modernisation,” not all of these will necessarily offer value for money.
Renovating a house is a popular way of trying to get more house for your money but ironically, the mad scrabble from those after a ‘project’ can mean you could end up paying more for a property than it is actually worth.
The good news is though, that even before you have purchased a renovation project, it is possible to get a good idea of the condition of a house.
When first viewing the property, look for its potential in terms of what could be done with its design and the financial potential it could eventually offer. Is there enough outdoor space to extend, for example? Have neighbours been successful in gaining planning permission to carrying out similar works to those you are considering?
Consider the location and immediate are and don’t forget to thoroughly assess the current structural stability of the building. You need to think about the ceiling prices for similar houses in the area too (the price that buyers will not be willing to pay over for the house).
If you are interested in the house, get in touch with a chartered surveyor. They will be able to carry out a building report which should highlight any areas of concern and give you an idea of any essential repairs that will be needed and what they might cost.
A chartered surveyor will recommend further investigations if they suspect or detect:
- subsidence or heave
- drainage problems
A building report is designed to ascertain the construction methods that have been used in the house (sometimes these vary if the house has been extended over the years.) This information can then be used in the house renovation to check that any new materials and techniques used are appropriate — this allows you to plan more effectively.
Another pre-house renovation essential is to get a measured survey. This will give you a precise scale drawing of the layout of the existing building. If you plan on making a planning application as part of your house renovation, this is likely to be required.
You can find a surveyor via the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors.
Remember, most structural problems have solutions. Obviously they may impact upon your budget so the earlier you find out about them the better. You also need to consider that certain structural problems, such as subsidence, could affect your insurance options, as well as its eventual resale value.
Always view a property at least twice — taking a video if possible in order to analyse it further once you get home.
The Difference Between Renovating and Remodelling
The terms ‘renovate’ and ‘remodel’ are often used interchangeably but they do have quite different meanings.
When it comes to buildings, renovation is more akin to restoration than remodelling — that is to say, bringing something back to its original state, to reinvigorate and refresh.
Remodelling, on the other hand, essentially refers to changing a building, perhaps through altering its layout or extending.
Of course what most owners of old houses end up doing is a combination of the two — returning original features and the bare bones of the property to their former glory whilst playing around with the layout in order to make the house more suitable for modern-day living.
Buying a Renovation Project at Auction
The potential to make a quick profit by renovating a house means there is often premium placed on houses in need of modernisation. Whilst you don’t want to pay over the odds for any property, the demand for renovation projects means that you will need to move quickly, so make sure you are in the best financial position possible before you make an offer.
It is not uncommon for renovation projects to be sold at auction, or else end up going to sealed bids, or best and final offers, and knowing how these processes work is vital if you are to be the successful bidder.
Apart from the work involved in renovating a house, there are other additional costs that should be factored in before making an offer:
- Reconnection fees: It may be necessary to connect or re-connect a water supply. If there was one it may have been disconnected. Electricity will also be required for power tools or day-to-day living if you plan on staying on site.
- Valuation fees
- Council tax
- Professional fees: include planning permission and Building Regulations approval, a variety of surveys, structural engineer reports and any other professional fees (e.g. tree surveys) in your budget
- Contingency fund: make sure you have some extra cash on hand to deal with anything unexpected that may arise (and when renovating a house, it is absolutely to be expected)
- Legal costs: expect to pay £500-2,000 for a solicitor or conveyancer to act on your behalf
(MORE: How to finance the purchase with a specialist renovation mortgage)
Once you exchange contracts on a house renovation you become responsible for the site and you must therefore have adequate insurance.
If you are taking out a mortgage to fund the project, your lender may not release any money without your warranty and proof of insurance being in place and should you experience anything such as flooding, theft or fire to the property, having proper insurance will mean your project can continue.
When renovating a house, your insurance should include public and employer’s liability, cover for building materials and works, plant, tools, temporary buildings, the existing structure, personal accident cover and legal expenses. Typical costs range from £500-1,500 depending on the project.
Although it is not essential, it is a good idea to take out a warranty on your house renovation. This is a policy which will cover your house against flaws in the design, materials or build quality, along with any problems that occur as a result of these defects.
When getting your finances in order, it pays (literally) to check whether you are eligible for any grants that might apply to the house renovation work you are carrying out. You will need to apply for grants before starting work. Check with your local council and also at national level from Central Government via National Heritage.
When it comes to VAT concessions, reduced rates may be offered on residential buildings that have been empty for two or more years. You can find more on this in VAT Notice 708.
Renovating a House: Do You Need Planning Permission?
There are several consent checks to consider before starting work on your house renovation, including:
- planning permission
- building regulations approval
- listed building consent
To avoid delays begin your schedule of works with those projects that do not require planning consent.
Remember, even those jobs that require building regulations approval can be started following 24 hours’ notice of the intention to comply, made to the local authority building control department.
If you are building near the boundary of your house renovation you should check whether or not this work is affected by the Party Wall Act. It is also wise to get your solicitor to check your title deeds or lease — there may be restrictions relating to development of the property.
(MORE: Building Regulations)
With the house renovation purchased and the structural condition assessed, the next job will be to formulate a design for the renovation and any extensions you might have planned. Many people renovating a house find that producing a design for an existing house trickier than starting from scratch.
It really does pay to spend a few months living in or at the very least spending time in, the house before coming up with a design. This will allow you to see where and when natural light enters the house, which layout configurations work and which don’t and allows you to build up an idea of how the house could best work for your lifestyle.
Whilst an architect is not always necessary for every renovation project, in the case of more complex designs and extensions, and certainly in the case of this listed building renovation, it is best to call in the professionals. Image: Simon Maxwell
When renovating a house it is not always necessary to hire a designer and you will certainly save money by coming up with your own design. However, extension projects and larger-scale renovation projects, as well as those in sensitive areas or listed buildings, will almost always require professional advice.
Your options when choose a design professional will include an architect, architectural designer, house designer or even a structural engineer who would be able to provide good solutions for specific problems.
A professional designer will be able to talk you through the planning permission process, produce designs based on your brief, advise on what will or won’t be viewed favourably by the local planners (some works might fall under permitted development) and give you a good idea of how far your budget will stretch.
Once you have a design your are happy with and which has been approved, you should create a schedule of works to ensure that you are carrying out improvements in a logical way to minimise disruption and duplication.
Renovating a House and Subsidence
You should aim to identify any structural problems with the property as early on in the project as possible — not only are they dangerous, particularly if you are living on site, but they could cause further damage to the sound and table areas of the house too.
Subsidence, underpinning, or piling work to the existing foundations can be a particular concern. If lateral spread has occurred in the walls and roof, steel ties might be needed. In extremely unstable house renovations, the insertion of steel props, beams or scaffold will prevent further collapse.
For many people renovating a house, one of the biggest draws tends to be the potential to incorporate original features that may still be in place — all of which add to the character and charm of old buildings.
Sadly, not all renovation projects will have survived years of neglect in tact, meaning original features might be missing or damaged. Work out which features are worth saving and which are later additions in order to avoid spending money unnecessarily.
In some cases, the cost of repair work does not practically make sense and you may need to consider sourcing sympathetic, matching replacements. However, unless you are prepared to spend more, these replacements may not capture the fine detailing of the originals.
In order to retain the original character of your renovation project, there are certain features which you should pay particular attention to, including:
If you are removing any sections of the house you will need to think about demolition work Waste can be removed in skips. Private individuals can get rid of most waste for free at local authority tips, although asbestos will need to be dealt with separately.
A house renovation often involves certain elements which can be salvaged and reused. These items should be taken away and stored somewhere safe, or sold on to a salvage yard.
Sometimes it is possible to sell the salvage rights of large-scale demolition projects in which case some of the removal work may be undertaken by the reclamation yard — saving time and effort and potentially raising some cash, too.
(MORE: How to get rid of rubble)
Renovating a House: Damp Detected
Anyone renovating a house should be prepared to find signs of a damp problem — active, historical or both.
Any property more than 80 years old is likely to have solid walls (as opposed to modern cavity walls) and such buildings often suffer from damp problems. Very often the damp will have been caused by inappropriate modern alterations such as:
- replacing lime with cement in pointing or render
- painting using modern impermeable products
- replacing suspended timber floors with concrete
- reducing or covering up ventilation
- changing external ground levels against the building
There are several types of damp, although the most common two are rising damp and penetrating damp. It is wise to get an expert opinion on what type of damp you are dealing with in your house renovation — each will need to be treated differently.
Rising damp solutions include:
- improving ground drainage around the property
- lowering the external ground level
- improving ventilation
- even just getting the heating back on
Penetrating damp problems in walls and ceilings can usually be resolved by repairing the building’s fabric, such as:
- repointing brickwork with lime mortar
- repairing lime render or missing hung tiles
- fixing the roof
- repairing lead flashings and valleys, guttering and doors and windows
When treating damp, look also to treat any signs of infestation such as rot and woodworm.
Many conservationists frown upon spraying chemicals in buildings to treat rot and woodworm, as these problems should resolve themselves in a few months once damp problems are fixed and the building is heated. However, not everyone is willing to wait or take any risks, and lenders often insist on chemical treatments as a condition of their loan.
Remember Site Access
If your house renovation is located on a site with restricted access it is a good idea to plan ahead and get any large items or machinery in for landscaping on to the plot, before access is further obstructed by new building work and stored materials.
Installing New Drains
Now is the time to check that the existing drains are in working order. Locate the inspection chambers (manholes) and pour different colour food dye down the loos and sinks to find out what is connected to where and whether any drains have collapsed and need digging up.
Once the scaffold is down, it is time to connect up the external drains to the sewer or septic tank. Some prefer to undertake this work at the groundworks stage, but this leaves the drains vulnerable to damage during building work — especially if they are exposed in the trenches around the building before backfilling.
Landscaping work to form the drive, paths, beds and lawns can be undertaken at almost any point in the project, providing it can be protected from damage by the building work. Most people wait until they are ready to move in.
Do not lay the final drive finish until all heavy vehicles and skips have finally left site.
If carrying out a house extension, you may have to relocate drains anyway and now is the time to find out. If there is no mains drainageconnection, inspect the condition of any existing septic tank and soakaways.
Renovating a House: Notifying Building Control
All new work must comply with the Building Regulations. As of January 2006, new building regulations applications for extensions have to include proposals to upgrade the thermal performance of the existing part of the house.
If living in the house renovation, seal off the occupied spaces at the same time as protecting any parts of the existing building that could be damaged during the main construction stage of the project, especially in listed buildings.
Getting a House Renovation Weathertight
Once the roof structure has been built, felted and battened, the entire structure should be made weathertight to keep out the elements and to secure the building.
Whilst the scaffold, is up check that any chimney stacks and pots are stable and clear, put on bird guards, and to repair lead flashings around the chimneys, in valleys, on hips, dormers and any abutments.
If any new parts of the roof intersect with the old, it is always preferable to match the existing/original roof covering either by buying reclaimed tiles/slates or by replacing one plane of the roof at the back and using the salvaged tiles/slates at the front.
Doors and windows can also now be installed and glazed. Where doors and windows are not yet on site, the openings should be covered in plastic sheets or even better — boarded up.
Whilst the scaffold is still up, replace, repair and fix all guttering, and fix brackets for the downpipes.
The is also the ideal time to carry out external decoration of external joinery such as fascias and soffits, barge boards and windows, render and timber siding.
Although a rewire and replumbing work might cost you,both these projects offer you the chance to install systems specifically tailored to your lifestyle, your energy usage and can be designed around any future plans you may have for the house. Updating heating and electrics will also add significant end value to the property.
If you are lucky, you might find that the heating and electrics have been updated to a good standard quite recently, in which case all that will be required may be new radiators. Old radiators can suffer from cold spots caused by a build up of sludge – having them power flushed will be a big help in improving their performance.
Of course many people renovating a house and particularly those adding extensions will want to consider underfloor heating as an alternative to radiators.
In the case of most renovation and remodelling projects, an element of structural change will be necessary in order to make the house suitable for modern-day living.
Period houses were often designed to incorporate lots of smaller spaces and may have been subject to a hotch potch of ill thought-out additions over the years, meaning the general flow of the layout can be left lacking.
You may want to extend or change the use of your spaces by knocking down walls, building out into the garden or perhaps making use of existing redundant spaces, leading to a basement conversion, garage conversion or loft conversion.
(MORE: All you need to know about taking on a garage conversion)
What Are First Fix Works?
Once internal stud wall frames can be built and any walls removed, flooring grade chipboard or floorboards can be fixed to joists, and ceiling joists can be added where required.
Door linings can now be fitted ready for the plasterers to work to (these are added later for dry-lining), and window reveals and cills can also be inserted.
Once the first fix carpentry (including new staircases) is complete, new first fix wiring and plumbing work can be undertaken, including soil pipes and drainage connections.
At this stage everything that will later be concealed by plaster needs to be installed, such as:
- ventilation ducts
- hot water cylinder
- extract ducts
- wiring for central heating controls
- speakers or any other home automation equipment.
House Renovation: Plastering the Walls
With first fix complete it is time to plaster, apply plasterboard/dry-lining to ceilings and any stud walls (tacking), and to repair any damaged plasterwork/mouldings.
In an older building, avoid using modern metal angle beads around arises, unless you want crisp clean lines: instead use timber beads.
Make sure you protect the stairs and any other vulnerable features while the plasterers are in, as it is a messy job.
New floor screeds for the ground floor will be laid at this point, usually after plastering to help keep it clean, but some like to screed and then plaster in order to create a neater joint between plaster and floor.
If you are laying underfloor heating, the pipes or cable elements will usually be laid after plastering, so that the manifolds can be fixed in place, but before screeding so that the pipes and elements are covered.
New Flooring Options for House Renovations
Before bringing in any timber products (such as flooring etc.), the plaster and any new screed needs to be allowed to thoroughly dry out.
Depending on the time of year this will take from two to six weeks — the longer it can be left, the less the danger of moisture causing problems with second fix joinery and especially wooden floors.
If time is of the essence, go for drylining instead of hard plaster and for suspended timber floors instead of concrete.
Whilst some people choose to lay fixed flooring such as flagstones, ceramic tiles and solid wooden floors after fitting the kitchen, sanitary ware and built-in furniture, there are several reasons why this is not a good idea.
Laying these floors from edge to edge of each room beforehand avoids many problems later in terms of uneven edges and also leaves flexibility to change these items in further down the line.
Hard floor such as this will need to be laid before skirting and architrave can be fixed in place, as it will need to run underneath.
What Does Second Fix Mean?
Once flooring is laid and the house is plastered, second fix work can begin. Second fix typically involves:
- Connecing the consumer unit and fit all light fittings, sockets, switches, phone and TV points and the extractor hood
- Hanging all doors and fix skirting, architrave, spindles and handrails
- Installing the bathroom fittings and connecting the taps
- Installing the boiler and controls, and fitting radiators
- Fitting the kitchen and completing any fitted furniture
- Boxing in any pipes or soil stacks ready for the decorators
- It is also time for the plumber and electrician to commission the heating system
Renovating a house doesn’t always involve a pretty country cottage or beautifully symmetrical period properties.
In fact, an increasing number of people are now waking up to the potential of post-war properties that, whilst not as visually attractive at the outset, are often cheaper, full of natural light and come with large open internal spaces.They also tend to be cheaper than those their more attractive renovation counterparts.
Post-war houses provide a huge amount of potential for a stunning exterior makeover, including new cladding, roofing materials, window treatments and driveways.
It is important to look at the smaller details that you could change without breaking the bank before you take on a large-scale makeover. Small alterations to consider include:
- Replacing rainwater goods
- Repainting (or replacing) any timberwork, such as fascia boards and finials
- Adding a porch to add character
- Landscaping, including gates, fences and planting
- Painting brickwork
Many of these changes can be carried out under Permitted Development, but if your home has a special designation (i.e. listed) these rights are removed.
Old properties don’t always provide the space modern-day homeowners expect and in this case a house extension will be necessary.
Ground condition, site access, location and proximity of services, design and size, will all affect how much your extension costs. As a rough guide, the structural side of the project will take up about 60% of the total expenditure, whilst fittings will use up the remainder.
(MORE: Find out all you need to know about building an extension)
The key to this is to use a two-pronged approach when renovating a house – minimise the amount of heat your home requires to keep you comfortable and minimise the cost of producing the heat that it does require.
What is Eco-vation?
Two new terms on the block, eco-vation or eco-renovation is the process of improving the energy efficiency of an old home to make it less draughty, more economical to run and a lot more comfortable to live in.
Draught-proofing is essential, but you should also optimise (or add) wall and loft insulation as a priority. Upgrading the boiler and heating sources (such as old radiators) will also help to reduce heating bills, as well as creating a more comfortable internal environment.
Easy draught-proofing measures include adding draught seal, repairing damaged and ill-fitting windows and doors and the use of draught excluders.
Insulating old houses can involve adding in cavity wall insulation (providing you have cavity walls), adding insulation internally to existing solid walls, which will then require plastering, or adding external insulation (an option for those carrying our an external make-over or re-rendering).
(MORE: External Wall Insulation Guide)
You might also consider replacing single glazing with double glazing, although this will depend on the affect it will have on the overall appearance of the house and whether it is permitted under your planning permission.
Painting and staining should only begin once all second fix work and preparation is complete to ensure the building is clean and dust free — otherwise it will be impossible to get a good finish.
Kitchen and bathroom wall tiling can now be carried out.
Shower enclosures and doors can be fitted once tiling is complete. Finally, once decorating is complete, any soft floor coverings, such as vinyl and carpet can be laid and the white goods such as the oven, hob, fridge and washing machine can be fitted.
Making a Snagging List
Small problems will inevitably crop up over the ensuing months.
Fix these problems as they arise, or, if you used tradesmen, ask them back, although expect to have to pay them for defects that are not their fault, such as plaster cracks.
If you used a main contractor, you may have held back a retention of 2.5-5% on the final payment. This sum is released once they have returned and resolved any defects.
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